* A writing assignment from the MFA program at the National University.
There are few filmmakers as widely revered as Alfred Hitchcock. Although his legacy is tainted by the way he treated some of his leading ladies his films stand the test of time. The only thing more distinct than Hitchcock’s films was his side profile. Alfred Hitchcock had so much influence on the global cinema he was knighted in December of 1979 (McCarthy). Mel Brooks, maker of genre parodies like Blazing Saddles and Young Frankenstein in 1974, parodied Hitchcock with his 1977 film High Anxiety. High Anxiety featured scenes like being attacked in a shower and running to escape being pooped on by pigeons, he treated Alfred Hitchcock’s films like a unique genre all their own. “Hitch” was a master storyteller who pushed the ideas of visual storytelling above and beyond their limits. He was a man who built and led an incredible team of master craftspeople; each of them lending their passion and expertise to Hitchcock’s vision. He never gave himself sole writing credit on any of his films, they were group efforts. He sometimes led that group with an iron fist. Hitchcock’s longest running collaborator was his wife, Alma Reville. Alma is a co-writer and Assistant Director, among other roles, on a number of his films. When AFI awarded him a Lifetime Achievement Award in 1979 he thanked the four people who had given him the most "constant collaboration.” He thanked a film editor, a scriptwriter, the mother of his daughter and the best cook he ever had ever known; “their names are Alma Reville” (Wilson). Their work continues to thrill audiences and inspire storytellers who still use the cinematic tricks they created.
Not to be outdone; Alfred Hitchcock also had long standing professional relationships with Hollywood titans like Edith Head (costumes/props), George Tomasini (editor), Bernard Hermann (composer), Saul Bass (title design) and Robert Burks (cinematography). Some of their best work was done on Hitchcock movies. Sir Alfred Hitchcock has 30 writing credits and 71 directorial credits listed on IMDB. “The Master of Suspense” shocked audiences with 50 feature films (Hitchcock, Truffaut 717). He started his career illustrating title cards for Famous Players-Lasky Studios in the UK (Interactive: Exhibitions). When that studio lost its Paramount partnership Hitchcock was hired by Gainsborough Pictures (Hitchcock, Truffaut 27).
While it may have been his third film, The Lodger is considered his true directorial debut and featured the early signs of Hitchcock’s favorite suspenseful plot devices (Criterion Staff). It was originally released as a silent film in 1927 and then rereleased in 1932 as an experimental sync-sound thriller. The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog (1927) is ostensibly about Jack the Ripper, really it is about the hysteria that ran through the city. In the 1940s Hitchcock also re-imagined The Lodger as a radio play. A Variety review reads: "Hitchcock is a director with an exceptionally acute ear. He achieves his results by a Ravel-like rhythmic pummeling of the nervous system. Music, sound effects, the various equivalents of squeaking shoes, deep breathing, disembodied voices are mingled in the telling of the tale with a mounting accumulation of small descriptive touches that pyramid the tension” (Marshal). In reviewing The Lodger as part of Hitchcock’s BFI retrospective, a Guardian arts columnist writes; “[t]he pleasures of silent Hitchcock cannot compare with those of the polished all-American studio pictures of the 1940s and 1950s. Nevertheless, it is startling to observe that his sensibility and knack for unsettling imagery were already formed “ (Wilson). In his famous interview with François Truffaut, Hitchcock would say that he was already feeling constraints within studio systems in the early days. He would have liked to leave the ending ambiguous, but he wasn’t able to imply the star might really be the villain (Hitchcock, Truffaut 103). Truffaut commended him on his “great visual inventiveness” (Hitchcock, Truffaut 104). The Lodger would also be where Hitchcock would first implement what would become his signature, the director cameo. His blink and you might miss them cameos started “strictly utilitarian; we had to fill the screen. Later on it became a superstition and eventually a gag” (Hitchcock, Truffaut 117).
His next major milestone was when he released England’s first talkie, Blackmail (1929). It was originally started as a silent film and dubbed for release at the studio’s request. The slightly different silent version was also made available to accommodate theaters not equipped for sound (Hitchcock, Truffaut 154). A glowing review from Billboard Magazine reads; “American producers could learn a lesson from this production” (JFL). Blackmail featured the Hitchcockian final scene at a famous landmark. Unable to shoot on location Hitchcock utilized a form of trick photography known as the Schüfftan Process; created by Eugene Schüfftan and used in 1927’s Metropolis (Hitchcock, Truffaut 156). As talkies became popular in Britain Hitchcock continued pushing his cast and crew, with sometimes very limited success. He told Francois Truffaut; “[t]o all appearances, I seemed to have gone into a creative decline in 1933 when I made Waltzes from Vienna, which was very bad. And yet the talent must have been there all along since I had already conceived the project for The Man Who Knew Too Much, the picture that re-established my creative prestige.” (Hitchcock, Truffaut 214)
His first American studio picture was supposed to be about The Titanic, but producer David O Selznick changed his mind (Hitchcock, Truffaut 320). Rebecca (1940) would become his first American studio picture, it opened the 1st Annual Berlin Film Festival and received 11 Oscar nominations; winning Best Picture and Best Cinematography. His second film with famed American producer, David O. Selznick, would be Foreign Correspondent (1940). “Charles Bennett’s and Joan Harrison’s screenplay is adventurous and entertaining, and the brilliant production design by William Cameron Menzies made for a film of astonishing visual complexity” (Spoto 202). A multinational apolitical but anti-Nazi espionage thriller that starts with a newspaper editor bemoaning his inability to find a reporter who wasn’t focused on all the “isms” of the world. The plot blurred the lines between the isms just as much as it did each character’s allegiances. The old newsman wanted someone who’d report on the news, not tell everyone what it meant. He sends a cocksure crime reporter who gets embroiled in a Nazi plot to bomb London, it opened a week before Germans started bombing London in August of 1940. “[T]he picture celebrates American simplicity, American savvy, and American courage. That’s what the producer and the studio wanted, and that’s what Hitchcock delivered with a benign vengeance” (Spoto 212). It was nominated for six Academy Awards, it won none. It was controversial to be anti-Nazi in America before the US entered WW2. To put it in perspective; the guys who created Captain America for Marvel Comics in 1941 were bombarded by death threats (Cavna).
After his first American films Hitchcock spent his next few films dabbling in genres, satisfying contracts and working with new friends like Cary Grant. “Hitchcock thought no movie genre was beneath him. He was willing to stretch his talents in America on virtually any kind of story” (Spoto 2013). Shadow of a Doubt (1943) “is Hitchcock’s first great American masterwork… a model of the kind of moviemaking that is gripping, first-rate entertainment and much more: it is also a network of important themes and ideas. If to be called “great” a work must have great concerns, then by any standard this film qualifies” (Spoto 258).
There is a direct, relentless moral honesty about this film, which stands as one of Alfred Hitchcock’s clearest statements about the ambiguity of the human condition. Produced during the war, when Hollywood films generally celebrated a naive sentimentality about the American way of life, it is remarkable in its dispassionate, cool assessments. The two Charlies are linked by more than blood relationship: they are linked by a common humanity, and it is this point that places Hitchcock among the great creative moral cynics of our age. For if young Charlie aspires to a happy life, she realizes at the end that it can only be striven for in this tangled, fallen garden that is no longer a paradise. She will have to live and die with her “shadow of a doubt” about what has gone into her blood, what makes her what she is. She has to realize that “things go crazy” in what E. E. Cummings has termed “this so-called world of ours” (Spoto 283).
Hitchcock’s next creative experiment would be his first single-location thriller. The aptly titled Lifeboat (1944) is a story about sailers stranded on a lifeboat. Based on a story by John Steinbeck, this war movie wasn’t as apolitical. Hitchcock had a message. In Lifeboat you see that you can't trust a Nazi, not even the really nice/charming ones. “There’s not a wide field for visual storytelling here, and so the film offers annoyingly constant conversation, some of it repetitive ” (Spoto 288). Despite its lack of visual appeal, Lifeboat would be one of five times Alfred Hitchcock was nominated for (and lost) an Oscar as Best Director (Spoto 289). Hitchcock would tell Truffaut; “I wanted to prove a theory I had then. Analyzing the psychological pictures that were being turned out, it seemed to me that, visually, eighty percent of the footage was shot in close-ups or semi-close shots. Most likely it wasn’t a conscious thing with most of the directors, but rather an instinctive need to come closer to the action. In a sense this treatment was an anticipation of what was to become the television technique” (Hitchcock, Truffaut 398). Lifeboat received a limited US release and was unable to break even with its big budget. In 1944 Hitchcock would also make anti-Nazi propaganda films for the British and French Government. He also helped make a documentary about the Nazi concentration camps in 1945. When asked why he told Truffaut that he was “too overweight and overage” for the war effort, this was how he’d make his contribution (Hitchcock, Truffaut 407).
After helping with the war effort he was back to making studio pictures. Spellbound (1945) was made under contract for David O. Selznick (Spoto 298), it’s not your typical Hitchcock picture and isn’t remembered for its visual language or editing. Spellbound is known for “its ever intrusive musical score by Miklos Rozsa, which won an Oscar and established the theremin as Hollywood’s official musical instrument to suggest psychosis… and understated performances by Ingrid Bergman and Gregory Peck” (Spoto 306). Notorious (1946) is revered as a “complex and compelling romance” (Spoto 319), within a movie about Nazi espionage. “Notorious is very much a film about how people conceal feelings— about how they glance aside, look down, avert a gaze to cover emotion. In this regard, dialogue is often juxtaposed with an ironic image” (Spoto 330).
Again under contract with David O Selznick, Hitchcock would make his next creative breakthrough with Rope (1948). A story told in real time, shot and edited to seem like the entire film is one continuous shot. Like Lifeboat, the majority of the story takes place in one single location. Unlike Lifeboat, there are no jumps in time or noticeable edits. While discussing the film with Hitchcock, Truffaut says; “this picture is a milestone in your career. For one thing, you produced it; for another, it was your first color film; and finally, it represented an enormous technical challenge.” To which, Hitchcock responds; “I undertook Rope as a stunt; that’s the only way I can describe it” (Hitchcock, Truffaut 469). By Hitchcock’s own admission Rope was an “experiment that didn’t work out.” While Roger Ebert agreed with that assessment he insisted that Rope “remains one of the most interesting experiments ever attempted by a major director” (Ebert).
Hitchcock closed out the 1940s making “his least appreciated works” (Spoto 384). Truffaut kindly told Hitchcock that these movies did nothing for his prestige (Hitchcock, Truffaut 497). Hitchcock’s flops were from taking risks and experimenting with visual language; and that one time he was a little too anti-Nazi. Strangers on a Train (1951) was the film that reestablished him in the high esteem of both critics and the public (Spoto 398). In telling Truffaut about transitioning from a few failures “Strangers on a Train wasn’t an assignment, but a novel that I selected myself. I felt this was the right kind of material for me to work with” (Hitchcock, Truffaut 509).
This would be the first collaboration with cinematographer Robert Burks ASC. Burks would go on to shoot 11 movies for Hitchcock. The Art of Alfred Hitchcock elegantly describes the penultimate scene in Strangers on the Train;
All this artistry comes together in a single moment of the film, in the one shot that reveals the director’s great care and originality: the murder scene. Bruno, having pursued Miriam to the fairground island, flicks open her cigarette lighter. Her face, filling the frame as she looks directly into the camera—out at us—is suddenly blocked as Bruno steps into the frame and his hands grip her throat. Her eyeglasses fall to the ground and then, in one of the most unexpected, aesthetically justified moments in film, the camera observes the strangling and the final collapse of the woman as a huge reflection in one of the broken eyeglass lenses, the shadowy distortion marking at once something gruesome and infernal, a moment sprung to life from a terrible nightmare.
To achieve this startling effect, Hitchcock designed an enormous distorting lens, then photographed his two actors reflected in it at a ninety-degree angle. Like such later sequences as the shower murder in Psycho, the final attack of The Birds and the collapse of the dying Cuban woman in Topaz, this brief moment (and the care Hitchcock took in planning it) vindicates François Truffaut’s observation that Hitchcock “filmed scenes of murder as if they were love scenes, and love scenes as if they were murders” (415).
I Confess (1953) and Dial M for Murder (1954) are also both classics shot by Burks. In Dial M for Murder they uneventfully experimented with 3D technology. Hitchcock called 3D a “nine day wonder,” admitting he came on the ninth day (Film Forum). Dial M for Murder did do well in 2D, however.
His next movie was a challenge to see below the surface. “To approach the film only as a light diversion may in fact (Hitchcock implies) indict a viewer as one who merely peers at the lives of others from a distance and leaves unexamined his own inner life” (Spoto 453). Rear Window (1954) would be the first time Hitchcock and Burks collaborated with editor George Tomasini, the only editor with multiple titles listed in the 75 Best Edited; chosen by the Motion Picture Editor’s Guild. Each of his ranked titles are a Hitchcock movie; Psycho, Vertigo, Rear Window, and North by Northwest (The 75 Best Edited Films). The story finds Jimmy Stewart’s action photographer wheelchair bound and spying on his neighbors. According to Hitchcock “Rear Window is entirely a mental process, done by use of the visual” (Spoto 471). The moral of the story easily summed up by his prophetic nurse’s dialogue; “what people ought to do is get outside their own house and look in for a change.”
At the height of his popularity, in the spirit of Rod Serling’s Twilight Zone, Alfred Hitchcock began hosting the anthology TV series Alfred Hitchcock Presents (1955 -1962) and The Alfred Hitchcock Hour (1962-1965). Alfred Hitchcock Mystery Magazine also began publication in 1956, a monthly digest of short stories for home delivery and supermarket magazine racks. Alfred Hitchcock was a household name and at a point in his career where he could make any movie he wanted. To Catch a Thief (1955) stars Cary Grant as a former freedom fighter proving his innocence by catching the thief that’s setting him up. It’s a total popcorn movie. “To Catch a Thief is … a creampuff of what is sometimes called a movie-movie, with just a little suspense at the end” (Spoto 483). The Trouble With Harry (1955) was made because Alfred Hitchcock wanted to make a point, he considered it one of his own favorite movies. He’s quoted as saying; “The Trouble with Harry is an approach to a strictly British genre, the humor of the macabre. I made that picture to prove that the American public could appreciate British humor” (Spoto 486). Film critics in the UK regard The Trouble with Harry as a parable on the death and resurrection of Christ, presented with maximum British irony (Spoto 497). His point was not made, it did not find an audience in America and Hitchcock was unbothered by the critics (Spoto 497). On the bright side, The Trouble With Harry was the first time Hitchcock would collaborate with film composer Bernard Hermann. Hermann would create several iconic scores, including the unforgettable Psycho.
Not many people have the audacity to remake one of heir own movies, Hitchcock did. Not a re-edit or re-master, he’d done that already when he added sync-sound to formerly silent pictures. The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956), is an American remake of one of Hitchcock’s most popular British movies. A more seasoned filmmaker with a bigger budget is telling one of his favorite stories with A-list talent; Jimmy Stewart and Doris Day. When asked about the two Hitchcock has said, “[l]et’s say that the first version was the work of a talented amateur and the second was made by a professional” (Spoto 501). The film was shot by Burks, edited by Tomasini and had a score composed by Hermann. “Rich in character, plot, theme and feeling, the later version of The Man Who Knew Too Much remains one of America’s great films” (Spoto 529).
The Wrong Man (1956) was shot on location in the New York City prison system, telling the true story of a wrongly accused club musician trying to clear his name. Reuniting Hitchcock with Burks, Tomasini and Hermann; it’s a “humorless and relentlessly grim… very close to true classical tragedy—and it’s Hitchcock’s ultimate excursion into the twilight world of Kafka” (Spoto 533). The studio gave it a Hollywood happy ending, despite Hitchcock’s objections (Spoto 547).
Many film critics refer to Hitchcock’s next film as his ultimate masterpiece. The team of Burks, Tomasini and Hermann unite yet again for Vertigo (1958) In Vertigo, they created a complex camera move where they tracked the camera in the opposite direction of the simultaneous zoom. The “dolly zoom” aka “Hitchcock Shot” aka “Jaws Effect” creates a sudden change in perspective. Dreamed up by second unit cameraman who specialized in camera effects (Lyttelton). The “contra zoom,” by Irmin Roberts, has become a challenging badge of honor for student and independent filmmakers around the world. This is when the image of Hitchcock as the perfectionist began to morph into the image of Hitchcock as the tyrant. “Often (and ungallantly) Hitchcock spoke of his dissatisfaction with Kim Novak’s performance, primarily because his first choice, Vera Miles, became pregnant when production was so long delayed” (Spoto 557).
The following year Hitchcock again collaborates with Burks, Tomasini and Hermann to make North by Northwest (1959). In addition, iconic graphic designer Saul Bass was brought in to create the title sequence.A more comedic approach to his time honored trope of mistaken identity, Hitchcock thrusts Cary Grant’s smooth sexy ad executive into a dangerous world of international espionage. North by Northwest features a famous cinematic chase sequences, Cary Grant being chased by a propeller airplane with a machine-gun. It also features the most famous of the Hitchcockian finales at a famous landmark, Mount Rushmore. “The final choice for the film’s title may well have been inspired, therefore, by Hamlet: “I am but mad north-northwest,” for as Hitchcock insisted, this is a fantasy of the absurd” (Spoto 643). In the end; everything is fake, everyone is a liar. Even the McGuffin had been worthless all along, unbeknownst to the people fighting over it. North by Northwest would become editor George Tomasini’s only Academy Award Nomination, they lost to Ben-Hur (Awards).
His next film, Psycho (1960), undeniably becomes his most famous. Hitchcock first promoted it with a statement in the press:
I am, at present, preparing a new picture. It has no title, but deals with a psychopathic murderer of young women. It is roughly based on an English crime case. It is a purely realistic story, and the central figure is a young man who has some kind of relationship with his mother (Hitchcock, Truffaut 872).
Psycho and Vertigo are typically ranked among the best movies ever made. For Psycho, Hitchcock and his crew would create one of the most famous scenes in movie history. Hitchcocks longtime cinematographer was unavailable and TV cinematographer John L Russel was hired in his place. The infamous shower scene featured Anthony Perkins “murdering” Janet Leigh in the shower, shot from every angle the censors would allow. Edited by Tomasini in a powerful barrage of images to a blood curdling score from Bernard Hermann. Chef’s kiss, the audience didn’t know it was coming. Hitchcock allegedly bought all the copies of the book the movie was based on, so nobody could spoil the surprises. The Master of Suspense gave them no warning this time. The audience witnesses Janet Leigh’s character steal a lot of money, after watching her wrestle with the moral implications and commit to returning it the grizzly murder was the last thing the audience expected. In Hitchcockian fashion we expected the pretty blond to surprise us, but not like that. The movie about greed, obscene wealth and the things desperate people do for money was easily his most economic, according to The Art of Hitchcock:
Made in black-and-white with a television crew in six weeks at a cost of $800,000, it has earned something in excess of $40 million, which says something about economy. And success (Spoto 657).
The break between Psycho and The Birds (1963), is the longest in Alfred Hitchcock’s career; mainly because of meticulous preparation (Spoto 657). His usual team gathered together to collaborate with a special effects expert Lawrence Hampton, artist Albert Whitlock, photographic advisor Ub Iwerks and Ray Berwick responsible for training thousands of birds. This was Hitchcock’s most ambitious movie yet. “Federico Fellini called it an apocalyptic poem and affirmed it as his own favorite among Hitchcock’s works and one of the cinema’s greatest achievements” (Spoto 689). The Birds was based on a something he found in one of the mass published Alfred Hitchcock Presents books of suspenseful short stories (Hitchcock, Truffaut 754). According to The Art of Hitchcock:
Hitchcock combined live action, animation, mechanical birds, live trained birds, and complex composite photography to produce an amazing series of shots—over fourteen hundred in this film, more than twice the usual number in a feature. But the deepest logic of The Birds is not exposed by elaborating its technical accomplishments, nor by detailing the harrowing experiences everyone sustained during production. More important and more enduring than any of this is the fact that the movie is a profound meditation on human relationships and on the myopic emotional vision that informs most of them (Spoto 691).
While she wasn’t the first thespian to have issue with Hitchcock, Tippi Hendren’s experiences making The Birds (1963) should be taught in film schools beside Hitchcock’s accomplishments. It’s plausible that Hitchcock was out of character because of added stress, that does not make it acceptable. He had been known to refer to actors as cattle, so he wasn’t known to be kind to them. The image of Hitchcock as the good natured perfectionist with a temper on set was shattered by Hendren’s accusations. (Thorpe)
In his post Psycho era Hitchcock would make five films Marnie (1964), Torn Curtain (1966), Topaz (1969), Frenzy (1972) and Family Plot (1976). “The release of Torn Curtain was a disappointment for just about everyone, and none more than Hitchcock himself, who agreed that it lacks the interest, wit and style of his recent works” (Spoto 739). Topaz was a critical and financial flop too. Hitchcock’s last two films, Frenzy and Family Plot would earn him the critical praise he was typically accustomed to. He worked with talented actors in that period; like Sean Connory, Tippi Hendren, Paul Newman and Julie Andrews. But Hitchcock would never again capture audiences’ minds like he did in the 1950s.
His espionage thrillers typically put an American good guy against Nazis and his only consistent political messaging was “Nazis are bad.” His films involve politics and political figures but they are not political. Bertollucci once argued that political films aren’t inherently political (McCann & Ellis 24), Hitchcock movies would be a good example of that. The horrors of a Hitchcock movie were psychological, until they came bursting in on you in the shower. The tropes of his movies were things we could all relate to; love, lust, doubt, suspicion, vulnerability, good guys being confused for bad guys and charming bad guys who seem like good guys. Scar faced henchmen, dangerous peril, interesting locations and beautiful women not withstanding.
Any one who went to film school had Alfred Hitchcock as part of their curriculum. Hitchcock’s DNA is etched into the global culture of cinema. He battled censors, studio heads and producers in a burgeoning art form turned multi-million dollar business. He had help from an amazing team of collaborators who all excelled in their field. He was also a perfectionist and a sometimes tyrannical madman. It’s important to remember both aspects of his professional career. He created movies that will outlive all of us, unfortunately he also created a toxic workplaces for some of the people around him. The behavior Tippi Hendren describes is deplorable. He was also a creative genius who built a team of creative geniuses to make some of Hollywood’s most time honored classics. Alfred Hitchcock was as great an artist as any flawed human can hope to be. Was he the sick and twisted pervert; “whose films were autobiographical projections of his own sick erotic fantasies” (Wilson)? Was he actually more like his benevolent and funny public image, only needling certain actresses; “not because he was a sadist to women, but because it was what the part required” (Wilson)? Princess Grace Kelly of Monaco refers to “Hitch” as “someone I love and respect” (Spoto 20). A few of the 50 feature films he made get an Asterix; they’re great movies but he was a creep to the actress.
In conclusion, he had audiences in the palm of his hand for decades and those of us who study cinema admire that. Hitchcock used all the tricks in the book and created some of his own. Most importantly, he built impressive teams of artists and gave them room to excel in their fields. According Mary Tomasini, George’s wife; “Mr. Hitchcock always gave George first cut. He wanted to see his interpretation” (Igel). He is one of the best directors to have ever lived, a director’s first responsibility is to assemble a good team to lead. A good leader’s primary responsibility is to let their teams work.
Works Cited :
Cavna, Michael. “Analysis | Captain America Was Punching Nazis in 1941. Here's Why That Was so Daring.” The Washington Post
Criterion Staff. “The Lodger: A Story of the London Fog.” The Criterion Collection, 1 Jan. 1970, www.criterion.com/films/28001-the-lodger-a-story-of-the-london-fog.
Film Forum. “DIAL M FOR MURDER IN 3-D!” Movies - Film Forum, Film Forum, 26 Apr. 2013,web.archive.org/web/20130709165632/www.filmforum.org/movies/more/dial_m_for_murder.
Giannetti, Louis D. Understanding Movies. 13th ed., Pearson, 2104.
Hitchcock, Alfred, and François Truffaut. Hitchcock, Truffaut. Ramsay, 1984.
“Interactives: Exhibitions: 1999: Alfred Hitchcock: Chronology.” Menu, www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/1999/hitchcock/chronology/20s.html.
Igel, Rachel. “I’ll Let the Film Pile Up for You". The Motion Picture Editors Guild Directory of Members 1996 -1997 https://web.archive.org/web/20130416034633/http://www.editorsguild.com/v2/magazine/newsletter/directory/tomasini.html
JFL. “Billboard (1929) - New Films Caught in New York: ‘Blackmail.’” Billboard (1929) - New Films Caught in New York: "Blackmail" - The Alfred Hitchcock Wiki, the.hitchcock.zone/wiki/Billboard_(1929)_-_New_Films_Caught_in_New_York:_"Blackmail".
Lyttelton, Oliver (2012-05-09). "5 Things You Might Not Know About Alfred Hitchcock's Masterpiece 'Vertigo'". IndieWire.
Marshall, Herbert, et al. “Variety (1940) - Radio Reviews: The Lodger.” Variety (1940) - Radio Reviews: The Lodger - The Alfred Hitchcock Wiki, the.hitchcock.zone/wiki/Variety_(1940)_-_Radio_Reviews:_The_Lodger.
McCarthy, Todd (30 April 1980). "Alfred Hitchcock Dies Of Natural Causes at Bel-Air Home". Variety.
Rothkopf, Joshua. “The Best Alfred Hitchcock Movies of All Time.” Time Out New York, www.timeout.com/newyork/film/the-best-and-worst-alfred-hitchcock-movies.
"The 75 Best Edited Films". Editors Guild Magazine. 1 (3). May 2012.
Thorpe , Vaness. “Hitchcock Experts Rush to Defend Director over Tippi Hedren's Claims of Sexual Harassment.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 6 Nov. 2016, www.theguardian.com/film/2016/nov/06/alfred-alfred-hitchcock-sexual-harassment-claims-tippi-hedren-the-birds.
Wilson, Bee. “Alfred Hitchcock: from Silent Film Director to Inventor of Modern Horror.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 15 June 2012, www.theguardian.com/film/2012/jun/15/alfred-hitchcock-inventor-modern-horror.